The proliferation of user-generated content on the Internet has challenged Michel deCertau’s concepts of strategies and tactics, whereby users still tactically outmaneuver the strategic data-mining of social media sites.


  1. According to Manovich, what is the difference between “media” and “social media”? What has made that possible?
  2. Why does Manovich question whether the “mass production of cultural objects by users in twenty-first century…represent a further stage of development of the ‘culture industry’ as analyzed by Adorno and Horkheimer”?
  3. What is the difference between strategies and tactics as defined by Michel deCerteau?
  4. How were “people’s cultural tactics…turned into strategies [that are] now sold to them,” according to Manvoich?
  5. According to Manovich, how have social media companies reversed the dynamics between strategies and tactics, in the original formulation by de Certeau?
  6. How have the act of remixing and offering “tokens” led to a conversation among producers and consumers in the digital age?
  7. How has the emergence of web 2.0 provide an innovative space for art that “rival those produced by most well-known commercial companies and most well-known artists,” according to Manovich?