- Introduction to Electronic Media
- Review Questions
Audio and Video
- The lower the signal-to-noise ratio, the higher the fidelity.
- Frequency is commonly measured in hertz.
- Digital media such as DVDs and CDs are made of protective plastic layers covering a light-reflective metallic layer.
- Electrical energy is a major cause of AM radio interference.
- Scanning is the basis for electronic transmission of television pictures.
- High-definition television standard in the US currently uses 1625 lines of resolution.
- The more faithfulness of a reproduction to the original sound is called:
- We call changing one form of energy into another:
- Which of the following is not an advantage of FM over AM?
- better fidelity
- fuller stereo capability
- signal travels longer
- A television station requires a bandwidth of:
- 3 megahertz
- 4 megahertz
- 5 megahertz
- 6 megahertz
- What is the difference between analog and digital?
- What is audio and what is video? How are they each generated?
- Describe the various parts of the waveform. How does wavelength affect frequency? How does amplitude affect loudness or volume? How does frequency affect distance and bandwidth?
- How is audio generated? How is video generated?
- What are some ways we can process an audio signal? What are some ways we can process a video signal?
- What are some applications for wired transmission? What are some applications for wireless transmissions? What are the advantages and disadvantages of wireless versus wired transmissions? Are analog and digital signals transmitted differently on wireless and wired transmissions?
- How are magnetic and optical media used to store audio and video? How are analog and digital signals stored on each of these?
- What devices are used to retrieve audio and video? How are analog and digital signals reproduced on each of these?
Roots of Broadcasting
- Electromagnetism was invented in the 1820s.
- Lee DeForest is best known for inventing the audion tube.
- Following World War I, public opinion favored Navy control of radio.
- According to Dominick, Fritz, and Messere, some experimental radio stations broadcast music and news as early as 1909.
- The individual credited with the invention of the telegraph is:
- James Maxwell
- Alexander Graham Bell
- Samuel Morse
- Guglielmo Marconi
- The continuous wave breakthrough is credited to:
- Sir Giles Fleming
- Reginald Fessenden
- Lee De Forest
- Vladimir Zworykin
- One of the first individuals to be credited with believing radio could be a mass medium was:
- Thomas Edison
- Lee De Forest
- Herbert Hoover
- David Sarnoff
- An early form of radio advertising was known as:
- single spot advertising
- chain broadcasting
- toll broadcasting
- The station licensed by Westinghouse for Frank Conrad was:
- When the United States entered World War I, complete control over radio was given to the:
- Radio Corporation of America
- Air Force
- How did electromagnetism come to be used for long-distance communication in the 19th century?
- How did Marconi’s use of radio telegraphy disrupt the existing electromechanical telegraph industry?
- How was wireless telephony developed?
- What is the difference between point-to-point communication and broadcasting?
- How did RCA come to control all radio activities by 1920?
- How did commercial broadcasting differ from amateur broadcasting?
Golden Days of Radio Programming
- In the aftermath of the Great Depression, there was an breakdown in public trust and a demand that government regulate various private industries, including radio.
- Radio and the recording industry often worked together toward common goals.
- In order to secure performers, the radio networks operated their own talent bureaus.
- “Integrated advertising” referred to the process where a sponsor’s pitch would be worked into the content of a program.
- Movie studios has little to no interest in radio and were generally not involved with radio production or broadcasting in the 1930s or 1940s.
- The NBC “Red” network was made up of stations originally owned by:
- United Fruit
- General Electric
- High-wattage radio stations in major cities, such as WOR in New York, WLW in Cincinnati, and WGN in Chicago, were part of which radio network?
- NBC Red
- NBC Blue
- As an upstart rival to NBC, CBS became a worthy competitor by… *
- Signing exclusive agreements with the most powerful radio stations in a given market.
- Eschewing entertainment programming in favor of educational and cultural programming.
- Paying radio stations to carry their programming.
- Broadcasting less advertising than NBC stations.
- By the 1940s, the radio industry, dominated by a few radio networks, could be best described as a…
- In the mid–1930s, due to the economic woes of Great Depression and the popularity of radio, which party was most directly responsible for radio programming?
- advertising agencies and sponsors
- the FCC
- radio networks
- Briefly describe the aims of the Radio Act of 1927 and the Communications Act of 1934.
- How did the network broadcast system evolve to include owned-and-operated radio stations and affiliated radio stations?
- How is integrated advertising different from what we consider a radio commercial today?
- What was the “Paley Plan” and how did it allow the CBS radio network to emerge as a competitor to NBC beginning in the late 1920s?
- What were some of the impacts of the Great Depression on the development of radio in the 1930s?
- As communications become more global, radio succeeds at being a local medium.
- Radio receives the second-largest amount of advertising dollars of any medium.
- The consolidation of radio station ownership has had little or no effect on radio employment.
- The FCC has strict limits on the number of commercial minutes in a given hour for radio.
- Syndication allows personalities popular in one area to be popular in others.
- The most crucial and popular radio daypart is morning drive time.
- Nationally, FCC rules allow a single company to own a maximum of:
- 12 AM and 12 FM stations
- 16 AM and 16 FM stations
- 20 AM and 20 FM stations
- as many stations as it wants
- The current largest radio group owner is:
- Clear Channel
- Westwood One
- More than half of all AM radio listening today is to:
- adult contemporary
- album-oriented rock
- news/talk radio
- all news radio
- About ____ of advertising spending went to radio in 2010.
- The most prized audience of any radio station is the:
- focus group
- primary audience
- first audience
- target audience
- What is the relationship between audiences and advertisers for commercial broadcast radio?
- What competition does contemporary broadcast commercial radio face?
- Why have broadcast radio stations (and satellite radio services) been so eager to consolidate?
- Why have broadcast radio stations been able to do so since 1996?
- Compare a format hole and a hot clock?
- Why are demographics and psychographics important for broadcast radio stations?
- Why does broadcast radio programming differ throughout the day?
Coming of Television
- The FCC “freeze” on new broadcast licenses aided the development of ABC and the DuMont network.
- The UHF band was established by the FCC in 1952.
- RCA publicly demonstrated television in 1949.
- The iconoscope was the technological basis for all electronic television development.
- The broadcast television networks emphasized live over filmed programming to keep affiliates dependent.
- Which of the following was not a reason for the FCC Freeze of 1948?
- the adoption of a technical standard for color television
- the opening of UHF television
- channels were set aside for noncommercial television
- adoption of the all-channel receiver bill
- Which of the following programs DID NOT make the transition from radio to early television?
- I Love Lucy
- Burns and Allen
- Amos and Andy
- Guiding Light
- Which of following publications most directly castigated broadcasters for not meeting their public service obligations?
- Blue Book
- Red Channels
- FCC’s Sixth Order and Report (1952)
- Seduction of the Innocent
- Which of the following was not a reason for the film industry being shut out of television in the 1940s?
- it was thought they would hold back development of TV
- the film industry had the reputation as a monopolist
- the Reds in Hollywood would corrupt young viewers watching at home
- the film industry had no interest in TV
- How did the FCC resolve the conflict between VHF and UHF for television broadcasting?
- VHF only nationally
- UHF only nationally
- VHF and UHF intermixture
- VHF and UHF deintermixture on a market-by-market basis
- How did the Cold War and the burgeoning civil rights movement affect the arrival of television in the post-World War II years?
- How did the film industry respond to television for the competition for television audiences?
- How did radio evolve in the years following the commercial introduction of television?
- Why did the radio giants—particularly NBC and CBS—come dominate television almost immediately?
- What were some effects of the FCC’s freeze on new television licenses, between 1948 and 1952?
- Why was so much network television broadcasting live?
- What were some programming forms that emerged in the early 1950s?
- How did “free television” play into the rhetoric of the Cold War years?
- The intent of the Prime Time Access Rule was to encourage the growth of local programming.
- The broadcast networks supported cable television since its beginnings in the 1940s.
- In Newton Minow’s speech, he praised sitcoms and westerns as valuable programming.
- Between 1960 and 1980, ABC, CBS, and NBC functioned as the chief programmer of our national television culture.
- Independent producers such as Norman Lear thrived in the 1970s because of the Fin-Syn rules that restricted the number of hours of content a network could have a “financial interest.”
- Which Supreme Court decision reaffirmed the Fairness Doctrine in the late 1960s?
- Pacifica v. FCC
- Red Lion Broadcasting v. FCC
- Miller v. California
- Meredith v. FCC
- Which of the following television stations are the most profitable?
- network owned and operated
- network affiliates
- independent stations
- public television stations
- Mark Fowler was…
- the FCC chairman under Kennedy
- the FCC chairman under Eisenhower
- the FCC chairman under Nixon
- the FCC chairman under Reagan
- Harry Belafonte’s performance on ____ was critical of Vietnam and the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
- Rowan and Martin’s Laugh In
- Smother Brothers Comedy Hour
- Ed Sullivan Show
- In the 1940s, cable television started as a way for…
- viewers to interact with their televisions
- to send electronic mail
- extend broadcast signals where radio waves could not reach viewers
- to access public, educational, and government television channels
- How did FM radio first establish its niche in the 1960s?
- In what ways was the period of the 1960–1980 the height of the “vertically integrated three-network oligopoly”?
- What are the four different types of television stations, based on ownership and network affiliation?
- What are Fin-Syn and PTAR and why did the FCC implement them in the the early1970s?
- How did CATV evolve into cable television and become a “useful alternative for commercial broadcast television”?
- How did independent television stations and syndicated program help each other?
- How did public television finally become a reality in the late 1960s?
- What was the Fairness Doctrine and how was it challenged in the 1960s?
- How did television programming in the 1970s turn towards “relevance”?
- What was a “toaster with pictures” and how did set the tone for deregulation of television during the Reagan presidency?
- What forms of competition did network broadcasting face by 1985 that threatened the generation-old three-network system?
- What is “nichification” and how did cable and pay TV exploit it to compete with the broadcast networks?
- Explain how consolidation affect of each of the three broadcast networks?
- Why did networks explore seriality in the late 1980s?
Multichannel Television and After
- The Fox Broadcasting Company bowed in 1986.
- The parent company of Paramount is Time-Warner.
- Stations that are owned and operated by the network typically are the least profitable.
- The FCC of the 1980s was committed to deregulation.
- Cable ownership has the same numerical caps as broadcast television.
- In the period from 1978 to today, network audience share slipped from ___ % to ___ %.
- When Fox Broadcasting first started broadcasting, it programmed for ___ night(s) per week.
- Current TV ownership rules prohibit a single entity from reaching more than ___ of the combined markets:
- The largest cable MSO in the United States is:
- Time Warner
- TBS, CNN, and USA are considered to be…
- advertiser-supported cable services
- premium services
- exempt from must-carry rules
- exempt from syndex rules
- What was CATV?
- How did the launching of communication satellites expand television programming over cable?
- What other technologies, emerging in the 1980s, posed new competition for broadcast television?
- How did the broadcast network landscape change since the 1980s?
- What are the different types of local broadcast television stations?
- Can we talk about station broadcast television ownership?
- What are the different kinds of cable television stations?
- What are the different kinds of cable television households?
- Why is it more accurate to them multichannel video programming distributors rather than cable companies?
- And what is an MSO?
- Aside from coaxial copper wire (cable), what other means can MVPDs use?
- Will you be able to get a job in television?
No quiz this week.
- How do the measurements of gross rating points and gross impressions helpful for media buyers?
- What is CPM and why do we use it to evaluate rate cards?
- How do radio stations sell advertising?
- What are the upfronts and how do broadcast television networks sell advertising? How does this differ from the “scatter” market?
- How do television programs get sold on the syndication market?
- What are the different types of television entertainment programming?
- What is a network affiliate and what do they do in exchange for network compensation?
- How do stations clear or preempt network programming?
- How is a television season structured?
- Who is responsible for producing most television entertainment programming?
- How does cost influence the production of certain television programs? Which are most and least expensive?
- What kind of programming is sold on syndication? Where is this kind of programming sold?
- What is the difference between first-run and off-network syndication?
- What are some strategies television stations use to schedule their programming?
Ratings and Audience Research
- “Reach” refers to the number of unique viewers of a particular program during the week.
- The larger the survey sample, the greater the potential margin for error.
- The total number of households watching a particular program, divided by the total number of households with a television set on, is called the rating.
- Nielsen has little interest in measuring television audiences outside of the traditional home.
- Psychographics are of great interest to advertisers.
- One of the survey techniques introduced by C.E. Hooper was the:
- coincidental phone interview
- The Nielsen Television Index is published:
- every two weeks
- every two months
- One of the most difficult groups for Nielsen to measure is:
- males 45 to 69 years of age
- females 34 to 45 years of age
- children 2 to 11 years of age
- college students
- For television ratings, the basic unit of measurement is the:
- individual viewer
- head of household
- area of dominant influence
- When a representative sample is desired, this type of research is preferred:
- focus group
- What is the difference between an active audience reporting method and a passive one?
- How is the accuracy of audience research methods maintained? What challenges—or biases—do these methods face from audience reporting?
- What method does Arbitron use to measure radio audiences?
- Compare ratings and shares? How are they used differently in reporting radio audiences compared to television audiences?
- What is a cumes and AQH? How are they used to report radio audiences?
- What are the two reports for television audience measurements used by AC Nielsen today?
- How are national television audiences and local television audiences reported differently?
- What are “sweeps” in reporting television audiences?
- What are some ways that “audiences” on the web are personalized for digital advertising?
- The Communications Act of 1934 first codified into law a public interest standard for broadcasters.
- Various citizens’ groups have exerted a profound influence over broadcasting in the 1980s and 1990s.
- An applicant for a broadcast license need not be a U.S. citizen.
- Cable TV systems are not licensed by the FCC.
- Obscenity is based on whether a passage or picture appeals to the prurient interest.
- The FCC currently has…
- five commissioners
- six commissioners
- seven commissioners
- eight commissioners
- The national audience cap on owners of TV stations is:
- The law that attempts to define obscenity is:
- the Pacifica case
- Red Lion
- Miller v. California
- the Meredith decision
- If the Communications Act of 1934 is rewritten, the job belongs to:
- the Courts
- the FCC
- the White House
- No more than three FCC commissioners can be:
- from one political party
- public utilities officials
- What are the “scarcity” and “pervasive presence” theories and how do they provide a rationale for regulation?
- What is the FCC and what does it regulate?
- How does Copyright protect the rights of publishers? How do exemptions to copyright protect consumers?
- What is the difference between obscenity and indecency? Why does one apply to all forms of expression and why does one apply only to broadcasting?
- What restrictions do journalists have to abide?
- How is advertising as commercial speech regulated? Why does the FTC regulate some kinds of advertising while the FDA regulate others?
- What is self-regulation?
- Why do trade organizations impose regulations on its members?
- How do ethics govern the behavior of media professionals?
Computers and Digital Networks
- The breakup of the AT&T monopoly in 1984 hastened the development of consumer online services.
- In 1993, Mosaic became the first graphical Web browser for personal computers.
- The content of the Internet is regulated closely by the government.
- URL stands for universal resource locator.
- Internet radio, such as Pandora or Spotify, requires an over-the-air, broadcast radio signal.
- ARPANET’s primary builder was:
- the US government and military
- the newspaper industry
- Primary development of the World Wide Web is generally credited to:
- Al Gore
- Tim Berners-Lee
- Bill Gates
- William Von Meister
- Yourname.com is an example of a:
- domain name
- Transmitting a message to a small group of interested people is called:
- The motion picture industry is concerned about the Internet’s effect on its business, except for the following reason:
- the Internet has made it easier for people to download unauthorized copies of movies
- many companies now stream movies directly to consumer’s TV set
- sales at theatrical box offices have declined
- the Internet offers video of higher visual and sonic fidelity than theatrical films
- What is a bit? What is a byte?
- Why are bytes based on two bits, such as in eight-bit and thirty-bit computing?
- How are magnetic and optical storage different?
- What is a diode? What kinds of computers used diodes?
- What is a transistor computer?
- What is a microprocessor?
- How did the Altair 8800 usher in the microcomputer era?
- What is the legacy of the Xerox Alto?
- How bulletin board systems allow personal computers to connect to each other?
Digital Media and the Internet
No Quiz this week
- What was ARPA and why did the US government form it?
- What was the design principle behind ARPA’s network—later to be called ARPANET?
- What is interoperability?
- What is packet switching?
- What is the basis for all digital media?
- What is a CODEC and how does it make digital media possible?
- Explain the connection between binary data, digital media, and convergence?